This month’s topic is perspective taking, more formally described as Theory of Mind (TOM). TOM is a core area of struggle for children and adults diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, research shows that those with Asperger's syndrome may be impacted with less intensity.
What is Theory of Mind (TOM)?
A definition of Theory of Mind is, “the ability to intuitively track what others know, think, and feel during personal interactions”. We use the information that we gather during these interactions to understand/monitor our own responses, make sense of other people’s behavior, and predict what people may do or say next. The foundations of Theory of Mind skills develop gradually from infancy and typically solidify by 6-7 years of age.
Challenges with TOM
Theory of Mind deficits may cause social difficulties: being sensitive to other
people’s feelings, reading the listener’s interest level in our conversation, anticipating
what others think of one’s own social behaviors, and understanding “unwritten” social
rules. These deficits may also cause academic challenges related to comprehension of
literature, understanding socially based themes in text, or interpreting directions given
by the teacher.
How Parents Can Help
1. Stress “thinking about others” at home. Discuss how our actions yield positive and/or negative consequences.
2. As situations occur, share your "thinking" with your child (ex: When you cleaned your space at the dinner table tonight, I felt proud of you!)
3. Help your child to deconstruct social rules by using books and social stories (ex: Social Rules for Kids by Susan Diamond and Social Stories by Carol Gray).
Jill Kuzma SLP Social & Emotional Skill Sharing Site (2008), www.jillkuzma.wordpress.com; The Applied Psychologist-Second Edition (1999), Chapter 11, Dr. Simon Baron-Cohen, Open University Press, Buckingham/Philadelphia; Understanding Core Social Thinking Challenges: The ILAUGH Model, Michelle G. Winner, www.socialthinking.com.
Crystal Sanford, M.Ed., M.A. CCC-SLP has practiced in the field of speech-language pathology since 1998. As a licensed clinician and fellow parent, Crystal's passion is supporting families of Autism and related social language challenges. In her free time, she enjoys gardening and spending time with her husband and two children in San Diego, CA.